Degree of roasting
Determining degree of roast
Degree of roast pictorial
|22 °C (72 °F) Green Beans|
Green coffee beans as they arrive at the dock. They can be stored for up to two years.
|165 °C (329 °F) Drying Phase|
As beans roast, they lose water and increase in size. Arabian coffee is prepared using beans roasted from between 165 °C (329 °F) and 210 °C(410 °F).
|195 °C (383 °F) Cinnamon Roast|
A very light roast level, immediately before first crack. Light brown, toasted grain flavors with sharp acidic tones, almost tea-like in character.
|205 °C (401 °F) New England Roast|
Moderate light brown, still acidic but not bready, a traditional roast for Northeastern U.S. Coffee, at first crack.
|210 °C (410 °F) American Roast|
Medium light brown, the traditional roast for the Eastern U.S. First crack ending.
|220 °C (428 °F) City Roast|
Medium brown, the norm for most of the U.S., good for tasting the varietal character of a bean.
|225 °C (437 °F) Full City Roast|
Medium dark brown with occasional oil sheen, good for varietal character and bittersweet flavors. At the beginning of second crack.
|230 °C (446 °F) Vienna Roast|
Moderate dark brown with light surface oil, more bittersweet, caramel-y flavor, acidity muted. In the middle of second crack. Occasionally used for espresso blends.
|240 °C (464 °F) French Roast|
Dark brown, shiny with oil, burnt undertones, acidity diminished. At the end of second crack. A popular roast for espresso blends.
|245 °C (473 °F) Italian Roast|
Very dark brown and shiny, burnt tones become more distinct, acidity almost gone, thin body. The common roast for espresso blends.
|250 °C (482 °F) Spanish Roast|
Extremely dark brown, nearly black and very shiny, charcoal and tar tones dominate, flat, with thin body.
Caffeine content by roast level
|Light||Cinnamon roast, half city, New England||After several minutes the beans “pop” or "crack" and visibly expand in size. This stage is called first crack. American mass-market roasters typically stop here.||Dry||Lighter-bodied, higher acidity, no obvious roast flavor|
|Medium||Full city, American, regular, breakfast, brown||After a few short minutes the beans reach this roast, which U.S. specialty sellers tend to prefer.||Dry||Sweeter than light roast; more body exhibiting more balance in acid, aroma, and complexity. Smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee.|
|Full Roast||High, Viennese, Continental||After a few more minutes the beans begin popping again, and oils rise to the surface. This is called second crack.||Slightly shiny||Somewhat spicy; complexity is traded for heavier body/mouth-feel. Aromas and flavors of roast become clearly evident.|
|Double Roast||French||After a few more minutes or so the beans begin to smoke. The bean sugars begin to carbonize.||Very oily||Smokey-sweet; light bodied, but quite intense. None of the inherent flavors of the bean are recognizable.|